Input Variables
Output Variables
Confidence level


Default values are arithmetic means from our database.

Min and max are limited by a 6sigma factor.


MAE - mean absolute error; RMSE - root mean squared error; NRMSE - normalized root mean squared error; R.Squared - R-Squared; Bias - difference between expected value and the true value of the parameter being estimated; Coverage - the proportion of the time that the interval contains the true value of interest; PIW - predictive interval mean width.


C2, 2nd cervical vertebra height

The most superior point of the odontoid process (dens) to the most inferior point of the anterioinferior rim of the vertebral body.

(Spreading caliper)

C3 - C7, 3rd-7th cervical vertebra height

The maximum height of the vertebral body, measured in its anterior third, medial to the superiorly curving edges of the centrum.

(Spreading caliper)

T1 - T12, thoracic vertebrae height

The maximum height of the vertebral body, anterior to the rib articular facets and pedicles.

(Spreading caliper)

L1 - L5, lumbar vertebrae height

The maximum height of the vertebral body, anterior to the pedicles, not including any swelling of the centrum due to the pedicles.

(Spreading caliper)

S1, 1st sacral vertebra height

The maximum height between the anterior-superior rim of the body (i.e., the sacral promontory) and its point of fusion/articulation with the second sacral vertebra. This most commonly occurs in the midline. Measure with the calipers parallel to the anterior surface of S1.

(Spreading caliper)

Spine Proportion through Implementation of Neural Networks


Daniela Vilas Boas, Sofia N. Wasterlain, João d'Oliveira Coelho, David Navega David Gonçalves


COMING SOON: Vilas Boas et al. 2019. Forensic Science International.

Daniela Vilas Boas, 2016. Missing values: estimativa da altura de vértebras ausentes ou mal preservadas para a aplicação do método anatómico na estimativa da estatura. Dissertação de Mestrado em Evolução e Biologia Humanas, orientada pela Professora Doutora Sofia Wasterlain e pelo Doutor David Gonçalves e apresentada ao Departamento de Ciências da Vida da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra


This decision support system is freely provided as an aid for profiling skeletal material. The authors hold no responsibility for its ultimate use or misuse. While creators we try to ensure that the software is theoretically grounded and statically accurate, we provide no warranty and make no specific claims as to its performance or its appropriateness for use in any particular situation. Please read any research paper regarding this tool before applying it. Always keep in mind: you are the expert, this is just decision support system.